Fiddler Crabs

Plum Island Ecosystems Long Term Ecological Research (PIE:LTER)


Saltmarsh Sparrows


(Listings in process of being collected)

Hamilton, T.R. 1998.The History of the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. 

Bird Observer. 26 (3).



Carson, R.L. 1947. Parker River: A National Wildlife Refuge. 


Weare, N. V.  1996. Plum Island the Way it Was. Newburyport Press.


Waters. T.F. 1918. Plum Island: Ipswich, Mass. Ipswich Historical Society.


Sargent. W. Plum Island: 4,000 years on a barrier beach.


Long. H.F. 1911. The Salt Marshes of the Massachusetts Coast. Essex Institute


Wasser. M. 2019. ‘Pull the Plugs: How a Simple Move May Help Plum Island’s Salt Marshes Adapt to Sea Level Rise’.



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